How the whole Internet works?

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What is Internet?

According to wikipedia, The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide. It is an international network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government packet switched networks, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies.

Who owns, manages and pays for the internet?

Internet is a decentralized authority which is managed by none. It all started when US government in the 1960s wanted to build a robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks. They had to design a network which can even survive even a nuclear war. There ARPANET came into scene. It’s the first implementation of internet. google it for more information.

Nobody owns the internet, nor anybody pays for internet to work. It’s a complete decentralized network where individuals establish their own networks worldwide and connect with each other later on. No any government can become the boss as it is owned by none. However, restrictions or disruption can be implemented according to the laws of their own country.

 

How do the Internet’s networking components interact?

Internet service providers are used to connect computers and networks to the Internet. ISPs vary in size with the largest paths carrying data the quickest. The main paths of the Internet along which data travels the fastest are known collectively as the Internet backbone. Each country can have its internet backbone through which lines are distributed everywhere. The Networks can be connected through physical lines, undersea cables or satellite networks.

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Networks communicate with each other using Routers and switches

What data transmissions and protocols does the Internet use?

Data is transmitted along the Internet using packet switching. Data is broken up into discrete units known as packets, which can take independent routes to the destination before being reassembled. Although many protocols are available on the Internet, the main suite of protocols used to move information over the Internet is TCP/IP. The suite is named after the original two protocols that were developed for the Internet: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). Whereas TCP is responsible for preparing data for transmission, IP actually sends data between computers on the Internet. Many other protocols are being used in the process for efficient transmission of data.

Protocol_Stack

Different hierarchical protocols used for communication


Why are IP addresses and domain names important for Internet communications?

An IP address is a unique number assigned to all computers connected to the Internet. The IP address is necessary so that packets of data can be sent to a particular location (computer) on the Internet. A domain name is merely a name that stands for a certain IP address and makes it easier for people to remember it. For example, example.com is a domain name and is much easier to remember than the IP address 124.53.111.14. DNS servers act as the phone books of the Internet. They enable your computer to find out the IP address of a domain by looking up its corresponding domain name (which you typed into your browser).

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What are HTML/XHTML and XML used for?

The HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a set of rules for marking up blocks of text so that a browser knows how to display them. Most Web pages are generated with at least some HTML code. Blocks of text in HTML documents are surrounded by a pair of tags (such as <b> and </b> to indicate bolding). These tags and the text between them are referred to as elements. By examining the elements, your browser determines how to display them on your computer screen. Because HTML was not designed for information exchange, eXtensible Markup Language (XML) was created. Instead of locking users into standard tags and formats for data, XML enables users to create their own markup languages to accommodate particular data formats and needs. XML is used extensively in e-commerce for exchanging data between corporations.

 

How do e-mail, instant messaging, and Voice over Internet Protocol work, and how is information using these technologies kept secure?

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the protocol responsible for sending e-mail over the Internet. As is true of most other Internet applications, e-mail is a client/server application. E-mail passes through e-mail servers whose functions are to store, process, and send e-mail to its ultimate destination. ISPs and portals such as Yahoo! maintain e-mail servers to provide e-mail functionality to their customers. Your ISP’s e-mail server uses DNS servers to locate the IP addresses for the recipients of the e-mail you send. Encryption software, such as Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), is used to code messages so that they can be decoded only by the authorized recipients.

VoIP-Phone

An IP phone(uses VOIP for communication)

 

How do businesses use the Internet to reduce computing costs?

Many businesses are taking advantage of cloud computing to reduce costs. Cloud computing refers to business services provided online by other companies and delivered to a customer through the Internet. These services were formerly delivered locally by company-owned IT departments. A company might use Amazon.com’s cloud computing servers, for example, to store their data instead of purchasing and installing their own servers. Cloud computing initiatives, while cost effective, generate data security concerns because a third party is managing sensitive data.

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